Publications by members of ICRAC
Altmann, J. (2001). Military Uses of Microsystem Technologies – Dangers and Preventive Arms Control, Münster: agenda.
Altmann, J. (2006). Military Nanotechnology: Potential Applications and Preventive Arms Control, Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
Altmann, J. (2009). Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles, in Capurro/Nagenborg 2009. PDF
Asaro, P. (2008). How Just Could a Robot War Be?, in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (Eds), Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy, Amsterdam: IOS, pp. 50-64, PDF
Asaro, P. (2009). Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation, IEEE Technology & Society, 28 (1), 20-24. PDF (paywall)
Sauer, F./Schörnig, N. (2012): Killer Drones – The Silver Bullet of Democratic Warfare? Security Dialogue 43:4, 363-380. PDF (paywall).
Sharkey, N. (2007). Automated Killers and the Computing Profession. Computer, 40 (11), 122-124. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2008). Cassandra or False Prophet of Doom: AI Robots and War. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23 (4), 14-17. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2008). Grounds for Discrimination: Autonomous Robot Weapons. RUSI Defence Systems, 11 (2), 86-89. PDF
Sharkey, N. (2008). The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics. Science, 32 (5909), 1800-1801.
Sharkey, N. (2009). Death Strikes from the Sky: The calculus of proportionality, IEEE Technology and Society,28, 16-19. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2009). Weapons of indiscriminate lethality, FIfF Kommunikation, 1/09, 26-28. PDF
Sharkey, N. (2009). A matter of precision, Defence Management Journal, December, 74-76.
Sharkey, N. (2010) Saying “No!” to Lethal Autonomous Targeting, Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 299-313. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N (2011) Processus décisionnels : vers des réponses automatisées aux questions de vie ou de mort, In Ronan Doare and Henri Hude (ed) Les Robots Au Coeur Du Champ De Bataille, 49-67
Sharkey, N. (2011) The automation and proliferation of military drones and the protection of civilians, Journal of Law, Innovation and Technology, 3(2) 229–240
Sharkey, N. (2012) Automating Warfare: lessons learned from the drones, Journal of Law, Information & Science, 21(2)
Sharkey, N. (2012). Killing made easy: from joystics to politics, in Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, eds. Patrick Lin, George Bekey, and Keith Abney, Cambridge: MIT Press.
Sparrow, R. (2007). Killer Robots, Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24 (1): 62-77. PDF
Sparrow, R. (2009). Predators or Plowshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons, IEEE Technology and Society, 28 (1): 25-29. PDF
Sparrow, R. (2009). Building a Better WarBot: Ethical issues in the design of unmanned systems for military applications, Science and Engineering Ethics, 15 (2), 169–187. PDF (paywall)
Other References — Monographs and edited volumes
Arkin, R.C. (2009). Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots, Boca Raton FL: Chapman&Hall/CRC.
Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M. (Eds) (2009). Ethics and Robotics, Heidelberg: AKA/IOS.
Dabringer, Gerhard (Ed.) (2011:). Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems – Interviews, Institut für Religion und Frieden, Ethica Themen, Wien. PDF
Krishnan, A. (2009). Killer Robots – Legality and Ethicality of Autonomous Weapons, Farnham
Surrey/Burlington VT: Ashgate.
Lin, Patrick/Abney, Keith/Bekey, George (Eds.) (2012). Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Moravec, H. (1998). Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Singer, P. (2009). Wired For War – The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century, New York: Penguin.
Wallach, W./Allen, C. (2009). Moral Machines – Teaching Robots Right from Wrong, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weber, J. (2009). Robotic Warfare, Human Rights and the Rhetoric of Ethical Machines, in Capurro/Nagenborg.
Other References – Miscellaneous
Arkin, R.C. (2007). Governing Lethal Behavior: Embedding Ethics in a Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Robot Architecture, Technical Report GIT-GVU-07-11, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology. PDF
Barry, C.L., Zimet, E. (2001). UCAVs – Technological, Policy, and Operational Challenges, Defense Horizons, no. 3. PDF
Bundesregierung (2009). Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage, Einführung und Bedeutung unbemannter militärischer Fahrzeuge und Luftfahrzeuge, Drucksache 16/12481, Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag. PDF
Canning, J.S. (2005). A Definitive Work on Factors Impacting the Arming of Unmanned Vehicles, NSWCDD/TR-05/36, Dahlgren VA: Naval Surface Warfare Center. PDF
Finn, A. (2008). Legal considerations for the weaponisation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles, International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems, 1 (1), 43-74. PDF (paywall)
Fleming, N. (2009). Campaign asks for international treaty to limit war robots, New Scientist Tech, 30 Sept.
Gulam, H., Lee, S.W. (2006). Uninhabited combat aerial vehicles and the law of armed conflict, Australian Army Journal, 3 (2), 123–136.
Jane’s (2007). Jane’s Unmanned Vehicles and Aerial Targets, Coulsdon: Jane’s.
Lin, P., Bekey, G., Abney, K. (2008). Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design, San Luis Obispo: California Polytechnic State University, Ethics + Emerging Sciences Group. PDF
Lazarski, A.J. (2002). Legal Implications of the Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle, Aerospace Power Journal, 16 (2), 74-83.
Marks, P. (2006). Armchair warlords and robot hordes, New Scientist, 192 (2575), 24. PDF (paywall)
Mayer, J. (2009). The Predator War – What are the risks of the C.I.A.’s covert drone program?, The New Yorker, October 26, 2009.
Oudes, Cor/Zwijnenburg, Wim (2011). Does Unmanned Make Unacceptable? Exploring the Debate on using Drones and Robots in Warfare, IKV Pax Christi. PDF
Quintana, E. (2008). The Ethics and Legal Implications of Military Unmanned Vehicles, Occasional Paper, London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies/British Computer Society. PDF
Sullivan, J.M. (2006). Evolution or Revolution? The Rise of UAVs, IEEE Technology and Society, 25 (3), 43-49.
Zwanenburg, M., Hosang, H.B., Wijngaards, N. (2005). Humans, Agents and International Humanitarian Law: Dilemmas in Target Discrimination, in Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on the Law of Electronic Agents – LEA, 408-412. PDF
Selected military, governmental, and similar documents
US DoD: Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032 – A key document to grasp the impact of unmanned systems in the US military.
US DoD: Aircraft Procurement Plan – Fiscal Years (FY) 2012-2041 – This document states that the US Department of Defense plans for a slight decrease of the total aviation force until 2021. Yet, the number of “aircraft in the multirole unmanned aircraft system category will more than triple” in the same period (p. 14).
US DARPA: The Vulture Program – This is a call for proposals from DARPA for a battery that will keep a heavier-than-air system with a payload of 1000lbs in the air for 5 years. In connection to this a 2012 Project Accomplishment Summary by the Sandia National Laboratory concluded that a power source has indeed been found but can presently not be used due to constraints by “political realities” (p. 2). It is very probable that SNL was looking into nuclear power sources (most likely a strongly encapsulated heat source such as Pu-238 which is already used in spacecraft) for UAV propulsion in this case.
US DoD: United States Air Force Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047 – This report discusses the progression from “man in the loop” systems to “man on the loop” systems and then to full autonomy.
US DoD: The Navy Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Master Plan 2004 – A report on UUVs, aptly called a “master plan”
US Naval Studies Board: Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations – This report contains some useful classes of autonomous operation across the different armed forces. It also discusses the benefits of autonomy.
US DoD: Unmanned Systems Safety Guide for DOD Acquisition 2007 – An extensive report on the safety aspects of military unmanned systems.